Social Cohesion in the United Kingdom: A Case Report
Keywords:Social cohesion, Social policymaking, U.K.
AbstractAbstract: Social cohesion is defined in, and adapted to, social policymaking in numerous ways. This paper attempts to clarify the definition with regard to the policymaking decisions of the U.K. government. In doing so, it brings to light the efforts of the 1998 Social Exclusion Unit government program that focused on recognizing how poverty grows in individual neighbourhoods, pointing out why neighbourhoods decline and how this could be prevented. The second phase of the program was to establish Policy Action Teams to fast-track policy thinking - including areas such as arts and sports - on the most serious issues within these neighbourhoods. From the Teams' reports, an interdisciplinary approach to social cohesion policymaking evolved. The paper also cites an attempt to benchmark the social impacts of the arts. Résumé: On peut définir la cohésion sociale et la relier à la formulation de politiques sociales de plusieurs façons. Cet article tente de clarifier la définition en décrivant les décisions politiques du gouvernement britannique. L'article examine donc les efforts d'un programme gouvernemental de 1998 appelé « Social Exclusion Unit » (Unité d'exclusion sociale). Ce programme cherchait à apprendre comment et pourquoi la pauvreté augmentait dans certains quartiers et comment prévenir le déclin de ces quartiers. La deuxième partie du programme consistait à établir des « Policy Action Teams » (Équipes d'action politique) - y compris des domaines comme les arts et les sports - pouvant accélérer la formulation de politiques adressant les problèmes les plus sérieux dans ces quartiers. Une approche interdisciplinaire pour traiter de la cohésion sociale a évolué à partir de rapports rédigés par ces équipes. L'article se rapporte aussi à un effort de souligner l'impact social des arts.
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